The ankle is the area where the foot and the leg meet. The ankle includes three joints: the ankle joint proper or talocrural joint, the subtalar joint, and the inferior tibiofibular joint.
The ankle joint provides up-and-down movement of the foot. The subtalar joint sits beneath the ankle joint and provides side-to-side motion of the foot. A diverse set of ligaments (made of tough, moveable tissue) surround the actual ankle and subtalar joints, binding the bones of the leg to one another and those of the foot.
Three important bones that make up the ankle are the following:
The other important structures found in the ankle are:
Arthroscopy allows your surgeon to see and work inside your shoulder joint through small incisions. A long thin, light instrument called an Arthroscope is used. During surgery, the arthroscope sends live video images from the inside of your joint to the monitor. Using these images the surgeon can diagnose and treat your shoulder problem.
Surgery is recommended when the patient is diagnosed with an injury based on the MRI results and physical examination and has failed conservative management such as physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medication, and joint injections. Conservative treatment has not resulted in a return to pre-injury status.
The healing process varies per patient and depends on the thickness/degree/location of the tears, age, and how active the patient is. The majority of patients heal within the first month after surgery. It’s imperative for patients to follow post-operative protocol such as attending physical therapy sessions and performing at-home exercises explained in the office to increase the range of motion and strength.
A cortisone injection consists of steroid medication and a numbing medication to help with the inflammation and pain. The injection helps by providing the medication directly to the area with inflammation to reduce the pain and swelling. The medication usually sets in within a few minutes. The effect of steroid injections is variable, in some patients, the effect is very short-lived and in other patients, it can last up until three months.
Symptoms are often first treated with non-surgical techniques, but there are many advanced procedures that can be utilized when necessary.
Muscle strains, injuries, and infections are typical causes, but spinal conditions may also be the culprit.
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