Knee Treatment

The knee is the point at which the thigh connects with the leg. It consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia and one between the femur and patella. The knee is a modified hinge joint allowing flexion and extension plus slight internal and external rotation.

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The knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body. Also known as the tibiofemoral joint, the knee consists of bones, tendons, and ligaments. The knee joint is where the thigh bone (femur) joins the shin bone (tibia). The smaller bones that make up the knee are called the tibia (fibula) and the kneecap (patella). As a result of supporting the entire body and its weight, the knee bears constant pressure causing it to be vulnerable and prone to injuries.

Knee Tendons:
The tendons help connect the leg bones to the muscles that move the knee.

Knee Ligaments:
There are three groups of ligaments that join at the knee bone and provide stability.

  • The anterior cruciate ligament - prevents the femur from sliding backward on the tibia
  • The posterior cruciate ligament - prevents the femur from sliding forward on the tibia
  • The medial-lateral and collateral ligaments - prevent the femur from sliding side to side
  • Sprained and Torn Cruciate Ligaments - Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common sports injury generally caused by a hard stop or a violent twisting of the knee. The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is stronger than the ACL and much less commonly torn. PCL trauma may happen with a severe blow, such as when the knee strikes the dashboard in a car accident and is often why a PCL injury is usually associated with other ligament and bone injuries.
  • Tendon Ruptures - Both the quadriceps and patellar tendons may tear partially or entirely. A quadriceps tendon rupture typically occurs in recreational athletes over the age of 40. A patellar tendon rupture typically happens in younger people who have had prior tendonitis or steroid injections to the knee.
  • Meniscal Injuries - Injuries to the meniscus are typically traumatic injuries but can be due to overuse. Usually, a piece of the meniscus tears off and floats in the knee joint.
  • Knee Dislocation - Knee dislocation is a medical emergency. A mighty blow to the knee causes dislocation of the knee. The lower leg becomes completely displaced to the upper portion. This displacement stretches and frequently tears not only the ligaments of the knee but also arteries and nerves. If left untreated, arterial injuries leave the lower leg without a blood supply.
  • Dislocated Kneecap - An injury that happens from direct trauma or forceful straightening of the leg, which can result when serving in volleyball or tennis.
  • Knee Osteoarthritis - It is caused by the degeneration of cartilage inside the knee. In its extreme form, the menisci (cartilage) will be completely eroded. The femur will rub on the tibia, bone on bone.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Knee - Rheumatoid arthritis is a connective tissue disease that affects many joints, often the knee. 
  • Crystalline Arthritis of the Knee - A severely painful form of arthritis caused by sharp crystals forming in the knee and other joints. These crystals may develop from defects in the absorption or metabolism of various natural substances such as uric acid (which produces gout) and calcium pyrophosphate (pseudogout).
  • Knee Bursitis - Originating from trauma, infection, or crystalline deposits, the various bursae of the knee that may become inflamed.
  • Patellofemoral Syndrome and Chondromalacia Patella - These two conditions represent a spectrum of conditions caused by patellar mistracking.
  • Jumper's Knee - Jumper's knee is so named because it is typically seen in basketball players, volleyball players, and people doing other jumping sports. 
  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease - Osgood-Schlatter disease happens in adolescent athletes where repetitive extension of the knee creates inflammation and injury of the tibial tubercle.
  • Iliotibial Band Syndrome - A ligament, termed the iliotibial band, stretches from the outside of the pelvic bone to the outside of the tibia. When this band is tight it may rub on the bottom outer portion of the femur.
  • ACL Repair - Replaces a damaged and torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
  • Cortisone Injection - Injecting an anti-inflammatory into the knee to help reduce pain and swelling. The effects can last up to several weeks.
  • Arthroscopic Knee Surgery - Depending on the injury, your doctor may be able to examine and repair your joint damage using a minimally invasive technique called arthroscopy. Using a fiber-optic camera and long, narrow tools inserted via a few small incisions around your knee. Arthroscopy helps remove loose bodies from your knee joint, remove or repair damaged cartilage, and reconstruct torn ligaments.
  • Partial Knee Replacement Surgery - Replacing only the most damaged portion of your knee with parts made of metal and plastic. This procedure is usually performed through small incisions, so you're likely to heal quicker than with surgery to replace your entire knee.
  • Total Knee Replacement - In this procedure, the surgeon will remove damaged bone and cartilage from the thighbone, shinbone, and kneecap and replaces it with an artificial joint made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics, and polymers.
  • Osteotomy - This involves removing bone from the thigh bone or shinbone to align the knee better and relieve arthritis pain. A surgery that may help you delay or avoid total knee replacement surgery.

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